Martham in 1272

from Norfolk & Norwich Archaeological Society report, Vol. xx, Pt III, 1921 pp 273-316

The Anglo-Danish Village Community of Martham, Norfolk:

its pre-Domesday Tenants and their conversion into the Customary Tenants of a Feudal Manor in 1101.

Communicated by

Reverend William Hudson, F.S.A., V.P 

The Norfolk village of Martham, lying about ten miles N.W. of Yarmouth, has been unusually fortunate in the preservation of documents illustrating its development from the earliest times to the present day.  They begin with two short but very valuable notices in Domesday Book.  The Dean and Chapter of Norwich, successors to the Prior and Convent, the former lords of the manor, have many of its Manorial Rolls from 1272 to the middle of the 14th century.  These are succeeded by a series of Court and Bailiffs’ Rolls fairly covering the period to the Reformation, when the Manor fell into private hands, and even considerably beyond that crisis.

This last set of documents is now in the possession of the Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society, having been presented recently by Sir Walter Grove, whose family were for several generations lords of the manor.  Finally, Mr Bracey, the present lord, has a series carrying on the local development to the present day.  All these the writer has been kindly allowed by the different owners to inspect and examine with no little advantage in working out the particular branch of the subject with which he desires here to deal.  Besides the above documents there is one other of very exceptional importance, a survey of the Manor in 1292, contained in a MS volume in the British Museum, entitled Stowe MS. 936.  The writer has already twice called attention to this survey.  First, he read a paper on it which was published by the Royal Historical Society early in 1919[1].  Secondly, he gave a short description of it in a paper in the last issue of the collections of the Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society on the similar Manor of Hindolveston, formerly belonging to the Prior of Norwich.[2]  The first part of the paper was founded on a survey of that Manor in the same Stowe MS.  As this Martham Survey will be set out and fully dealt with here, the writer hopes that it will be felt sufficient at this point to recall the facts and conclusions stated or suggested in these two papers.

The Survey of 1292 gives us the names of 107 “former” holders of units of land differing considerably in size.  These holdings were (as usual in those days) made up of strips of land, often widely separated from each other.  In 1292, by partition on death of a holder, or for other reasons, these 107 units were held in more than 900 names, and the number of furlong strips so held exceeded 2000.  In the case of every strip is given the name of the “field” in which it lies, of the tenant whose land it adjoins on its long side, and of the land or road on which it abuts on its short side.  The tenants are exclusively described as holding in “villenage” or in “socage.”  The villenage tenements are expressly stated to be 22¼ in number.  They all consist of 12 acres (or fractions) and are known by an archaic name “eruing,” a perversion of an old Saxon word “eriung,” ploughing, suggesting that sections of a plough-team land under that name had been in use from the Anglo-Saxon period.  It was further pointed out that while Domesday Book speaks of the vill as being occupied at that time by “freemen” under no agricultural obligation to a lord, the first Bishop of Norwich, who was their patron, gave the land almost immediately afterwards to his newly-founded Monastery for the maintenance of his monks.  For this purpose he converted his rights of patronage into those of the lord of a manor, creating a “demesne” or home-farm to be tilled by the tenants for the use of the monks.  This was accomplished by 1101, and it thus appeared that the date when the “former” tenants or some immediate predecessors held their tenements as units might not unreasonably be carried back to the creation of the Manor.  If so, they would be linked on to the freer holders in the Domesday Survey.  The somewhat unusual homogeneousness of the tenants in 1292, as revealed by the intermixture of families and lands, together with other indications, seemed to favour this conclusion.  It was hoped that further investigation into this exhaustive document might lead to more definite results.  This hope has not been disappointed.  On the contrary, some quite unexpected coincidences have revealed themselves, making the method of the development of the manorial organisation out of the Domesday conditions a matter of certainty, so that even many of the details of pre-Domesday conditions can be more or less clearly traced.

To make our story more intelligible, I propose first to give in narrative form the main conclusions which we claim to have reached, and afterwards to substantiate the details with the help of the Stowe Survey.

Before doing so, I must make grateful acknowledgement of help received from Mr H W Saunders, who has co-operated in all this work from the beginning,[3] and from Mr Hubert Morgan-Browne, of Streatham Hill, who, though unable from defective eyesight to join in the actual investigation of documents, has, by an exceptionally retentive memory, given invaluable assistance both in linking together scattered details of information and also suggesting and following out new channels of investigation in this complicated Survey.

Martham in the time of the Angles.—That Martham was of Angle origin is witnessed by the termination of its name.  The invaders no doubt entered the Bure by Caister and landed somewhere by Burgh St Margaret[4].  When in course of time they settled down to a peaceful life, Martham was apparently their principal settlement in the northern half of the island, though Somerton and Winterton may belong to this period.  A “ham” is supposed to denote the residence of a thane or lord, and some say that he held a comparatively servile set of tenants under him[5].  We have nothing to guide us on this point.  But it seems clear that there were three great “fields,” Westfeld, Estfeld, Suthfeld.  The “three-field” system of cultivation meant that two of the fields were sown each year in rotation and the third left fallow.  At first the land, parcelled out in strips, was assigned to the settlers in various proportions, each holder having an equal number of strips in each field.  From time to time a re-distribution of strips took place.  The ploughing and other operations were done in each field according to a common plan.  In process of time a great alteration was effected.  Though the lands were said to be held in common, the community of tenants was not, in the modern sense, a corporate body.  Each man was master of his own strips while he held them.  After several generations of settled agriculture we can easily understand that the better class of tenants preferred a more permanent kind of tenure.  Their holdings became theirs in perpetuity and passed at their death to their heirs and successors.  They could even part with them by sale or exchange.  The possible size of these three fields will be considered in connection with the Stowe Survey.

One fact, however, must here be pointed out.  The permanency of the tenures did not necessarily alter the system of common cultivation, and that involved the common use of ploughs provided by some method of co-operation.  A lord with subordinate serfs might provide ploughs.  But, as we shall see, there was no such lord in Martham in Danish times, and it is at least doubtful whether such a system of provision of ploughs was in use then.  Another more probable method is suggested by the name “eruing,” given in our Survey to the villain tenements of 12 acres.  An “eriung” (as more correctly spelt) had some connection with a plough and most likely implied that the holder was expected to provide (perhaps some part of a plough, but at all events) a quarter of a plough-team, or two oxen towards a team of eight.  If, as we must suppose, the existence of this name in Norman times indicates its continuous descent from the Angle settlers, we can picture the three great fields parcelled out into sections of 12-acre eriungs, four of which supplied one of the common plough-teams.  Some tenants might supply a whole plough, some half, some a quarter.  We shall find that right down into the latter part of the 14th century such a system of sets of 12-acre and 10-acre tenements was still in existence and was being utilised not for plough-teams but for the election of reeves, harvestmen, rent collectors, etc.

The Danish Settlement.—The Danes not only settled down in Norfolk, but after the peace between Alfred the Great and Guthrum at the end of the 9th century were recognised as masters of a large part of England called the Danelaw.  We do not know anything definitely about the progress of the settlement.  The 10th century, no doubt, saw Anglo-Danish communities developing.  But judging from the case of Norwich[6], we may perhaps infer that the greatest Danish influence in the district was exercised after the accession of Canute to the English throne in 1016 and continued till the Norman Conquest.  The conditions described in Domesday Book as existing in Martham and its neighbourhood in the time of Edward the Confessor were Anglo-Danish.  Let us see what we find.  In the first place, Martham no longer stood alone on its island with its possible neighbours, Somerton and Winterton.  It was surrounded with Danish “by”s, Hemsby, Rollesby, Ormesby.  Of these the one that was destined to be chiefly connected with Martham was its nearest neighbour, Hemsby.  The history of their early connection is very interesting.  To understand it we must observe that at this time East Anglia had a marked characteristic of its own.  The Midland and most other English villages and lands had passed into the condition of feudal manors, that is, the tenants were under the control of a lord, to whom they owed not only rents and personal services, but chiefly the obligation of numerous agricultural works on his demesne.  In East Anglia, although this system was largely developed, there remained a considerable number of places where owners of small estates were still “freemen,” and in some cases there were groups of such freemen owning several hundred acres of land in their own name.  They were not altogether free from some sort of subjection to a lord, as we shall find.  But they did not work on his land.  Such a group of thirty-six freemen still existed at Martham.  They owned over 600 acres of land and 16 ploughs.  They also had pasture land, and there was a church, apparently originating from them and not provided by any lord for his tenants.  It had 50 acres of land attached to it.  There were also, as we shall endeavour to show, certain other “socmen” working with them, whose presence has only been discovered by the help of our Survey; to explain which statement we must return to Hemsby as described in Domesday (T.R.E.)[7].  It was then already a feudal manor, and after several more or less violent changes of ownership was in the hands of Aylmer, Bishop of Elmham, as was also Martham.  At an earlier period of King Edward’s reign Hemsby had been held by Algar, Earl of Mercia, and here we come to an unexplained incident in Martham history.  Either Algar himself or some predecessor, by what authority we do not know, was in possession of about a quarter of the agricultural land in Martham, chiefly in Suthfeld.  Here he established a “berewite,” or outlying portion of his Hemsby demesne.[8]  It consisted of two ploughlands (240 acres), and on it he had a demesne (separate from that of Hemsby), to work which there were 7 villeins, 3 bordars, and 1 serf, with 2 ploughs on the demesne and 1 plough of the men.  We have suggested in the former paper[8] that this became the demesne of Bishop Herbert’s Manor of Martham when he afterwards formed it.

In the Domesday account there follows, still under the heading of Hemsby, a somewhat unintelligible statement:—“There are further attached to this Manor (Hemsby) 27 socmen with 30 acres of land and always 3 ploughs and 5 acres of meadow.”  On the face of it, there is nothing to connect these men with Martham, and in Blomefield’s History of Norfolk this entry is omitted under both Hemsby and Martham.  It is, of course, obvious that when 27 socmen with 3 ploughs are credited with no more than 30 acres, some explanation is necessary.  It was only the happy feature of the number 27 that led us to identify them with 27 socmen who are very unaccountably distinguished from other socmen in the Stowe Survey of Martham.  We hope to show that they were probably the then representatives of the additional Danish element working in Martham with the 36 freemen of the older Anglo-Danish community, that they held over 200 acres there, and were presumably considered by the Domesday Commissioners to pass under the village community, who were the responsible heads of the vill.

 

The Formation of the Martham Manor: within fifteen years after Domesday Book was compiled, Bishop Herbert, on the removal of the See to Norwich, granted his “Manors” of Hemsby and Martham to his new Priory of Norwich in 1101.  The greater part of Martham had not hitherto been subject to manorial conditions.  How did the Bishop make this change?  We are now able to answer, that he made the 36 freemen into “villenage” tenants and the 27 socmen just mentioned into customary tenants with specified obligations of service.  Our Stowe Survey makes this quite clear.  It is not quite so easy to determine how he dealt with his Hemsby berewite.  He certainly reunited it with the rest of Martham and incorporated it in his Martham Manor.  Out of 240 acres, 168 acres formed the demesne.  The 7 villeins and 3 bordars with their lands are, no doubt, included in the Stowe list of tenants, and may also be identified with some probability.

 

Two Holdings in Sco:—At the end of the entry in Domesday Book referring to Hemsby and the berewit in Martham, together with the 27 socmen, it is stated, “In Escou 2 bordars of 6 acres of land and they belong to Hemsby.”  In another place we read, “In Esco 1 freeman of Bishop Almar, by commendation only, with 15 acres of land and ½ plough and ½ acre of meadow.  Worth 16d.”  Sco was a hamlet lying between Martham and Repps.  Several of the tenants of Martham Manor lived there, and it is more than probable that the occupants of these 21 acres were of their number.

To sum up, we have in the Domesday account of Martham, as connected with the Bishop and his Manor, (a) in the name of 36 freemen 610 acres of arable land, (b) as a “berewite” of Hemsby Manor 240 acres, (c) as at that time coonected with Hemsby 30 acres in the name of 27 socmen, and in Sco 21 acres held by 2 tenants.  It may be added that probably another 10 acres in Winterton belonging to the Bishop should also be included in his Martham Manor.  This makes a total of 911 acres, which we hope to identify in the Stowe Survey of 1292.  There were several other small holdings in Martham mentioned in Domesday Book, but they were held by other lords and would not appear in the Survey.

LIST OF THE “FORMER” TENANTS OF MARTHAM.

Stowe MS. 936, fol.37 to 115.

Name of Tenant Lands held in Villenage  Socage Lands held by Villeins   Lands held by the 27 Socmen   Lands held by other Socmen

                                    A.         R.         P.            A.         R.         P.                    A.         R.         P.                          A.         R.         P.

1.  Hil, Roger de  (H)[i]            -                                       -                                 10        0          0                           -

2.  Knight Thomas        12          0          0 (f.e.)[ii]  4       0          0                      -

3. Pyne Richard (H)        -                                       -                                           4          0          0                           -

4. Hisbald Humfrey       -                                        -                                           -                                                   2        0        0

5. Stiward Yware (H)    -                                        -                                           6          0          0 

6. Rede, Joh. le             -                                        -                                           -                                                   12       0        0

7. Brun Will. (H)            -                                        -                                          3           0          0                           -

8. Sco. Humfrey de (H) 3          0         0 (q.e.)        -                                        16           0          0[iii]                      -

9. Blakeman Yware (H)  -                                         -                                         6           0          0                            -       

10. Wirle (H)                 -                                         -                                       13           0          0                            -

11. Ses, Yware de (H)    -                                         -                                       10           0          0                            -

12. Ses, Unbeyn de (H)  -                                         -                                       12           2          0                            -

13. Syk, Thos de (H)      -                                         -                                      22           2          0                             -

14. Vosse Peter             3           0         0 (q.e.)        1        0        0                     -                                                      -

15. Goshey Will.             6          0         0 (h.e.)         -                                         -                                                      -

16. Keneman Agnes        -                                          -                                         -                                                      1       2       0 

17. Geoffrey, Yware son of 

                                     12         0          0 (f.e.)        4        2        0[iv]                -                                                      -

18. Mome Roger              3         0          0 (q.e.)        3        0        0                     -                                                      -

19. Elsy Alice                  -                                         -                                         -                                                      1       0      0   

20. Anneys Will.            18         0          0 (1½ e.)      6        0        0[v]                 -                                                      - 

21. Arnald Richard          -                                         -                                          -                                                     2      2       0 22. Stannard Matilda (H) -                                        -                                         6         0          0                              - 

23. Godyve John (H)       -                                         -                                         4         0          0                              - 

24. Gileberd Peter          12         0          0 (f.e.)        3        0        0                     -                                                     -

25. Pethun Will.               6          0          0 (h.e.)        1        0        0                     -                                                     - 

26. Fayrman Bernard       6          0          0 (h.e.)        3       0         0                    -                                                     -  

27. Hugo, Walter son of  3          3          0 (t.s.)[vi]    3       3         0                    -                                                     -

28. Leve Will.                  3          3           0 (t.s.)        3       3         0                    -                                                      -

29. Lom Thos.                  3          3           0 (t.s.)        3       3        0                     -                                                     -

30. Bruerio, Joh. de        3          3           0 (t.s.)        3       3         0                     -                                                     - 

31. Byl Steph.                  6          0           0 (h.e.)        -                                         -                                                     -

32. Coleman Matilda (H)  -                                            -                                        6          0         0                             - 

33. Yvo, Will. son of         -                                           -                                        -                                                     8       0      0 

34. Blakyng Rob. & Elfer Rog.

                                       9           0           0 (¾ e.)        2      2       0                      -                                                      -

35. Harald Nicholas         -                                            -                                       -                                                      6       2      0

36. Sunnof John (H)        -                                           -                                        9          0           0                            - 

37. Chaplain Will.             -                                           -                                        -                                                      2       2      0

38. Gervase, Nich. son of -                                           -                                        -                                                      3       0      0

39. Prat Rob.                   6          0            0 (h.e.)        1      0         0                     -                                                      - 

40. Hereman Will. (H)      -                                           -                                        6          0          0                             -

4l  Erl Geoffrey (H)         -                                           -                                        16        0           0                            -

42. Cope Will.                  6          0            0 (h.e.)        3      0          0                    -                                                     - 

43. Tusard Richard          -                                           -                                         -                                                     3        0      0  

44. Spac Hugo                 6          0            0 (h.e.)        3       0         0                    -                                                     - 

45. Frone Gunnilda          -                                            -                                         -                                                     3        0      0 

46. Lestan Rob.                6         0            0 (h.e.)         1       2          0                   -                                                     - 

47. Lestan — (H)             -                                            -                                        11         2          0                             - 

48. Archer, Will. le (H)   -                                             -                                         6        3          0                             -

49. Spac Rog.                   6         0            0 (h.e.)         4       0        0                      -                                                   - 

50. Gemere Rich.             9          0            0 (¾ e.)[vii] 20      0        0                      -                                                   - 

51. Orger Rich.                6          0            0 (h.e.)         9       0        0                     -                                                    - 

52. Bernard John (H)      3          0          20 (h.e)          -                                         4         0         0                             - 

53. Gode Rog.                 12          0            0 (f.e)          0       2        0                     -                                                    - 

54. Starlyng Rob. (Swan) 3          3            0 (t.s.)[viii]   2       0        0                     -                                                    - 

55. Godrich Nich.           12          0            0 (f.e.)          -                                        -                                                     - 

56. Godrich Will.              -                                             -                                        -                                                     1        0       0 

57. Kylderous Margaret   -                                             -                                        -                                                      1       0       0 

58. Kilderous Rog.            6          0            0 (h.e.)                                                   -                                                     - 

59. Tusard Richard           -                                            -                                         -                                                    2       2    0[ix]

60. Curtman Rob. (H)       3          0            0 (q.e.)          -                                         3         0         0                              -

61. Orger Richard            -                                             -                                         -                                                     1       0      0 

62. Atte Pit, Alice           -                                              -                                         -                                                    4       0      0

63. Bo Wluina                  -                                              -                                         -                                                    0       2      0 

64. Greyve, Ralph le        -                                              -                                         -                                                   12       0     0[x]

65. Robert, Joh. son of   -                                              -                                         -                                                   14       0     0

66. Anant, Rog. son of Yware

                                       6          0            0 (h.e.)          2        0      0                       -                                                    - 

67. Wymerc Joh.            6          0             0 (h.e.)          1        0      0                       -                                                    - 

68. Pecke Emma              -                                              -                                          -                                                    1        2      0

69. Longe, Joh. le (H)     -                                              -                                         10          0         0                            -

70. Kinc Joh.                  -                                              -                                           -                                                   11       0      0

71. Bedel Richard           -                                              -                                           -                                                    7       0      0 

72. Clerk, Rob. le          12          0              0 (f.e.)        12        0       0                      -                                                    - 

73. Mey Wymarcha (H)  -                                              -                                          3            0        0[xi]                      - 

74. Carpenter Joh.        3          0              0 (q.e.)         2        2        0[xii]                -                                                    -

          —

          —

75.

Godwyne, Will. son of

          —

          —

          —

7          0           0

76.

Yware, Rog. son of Steph.

6       0       0 (h.e.)

7            0          0

          —

          —

77.

Wluan Adam

6       0       0 (h.e.)

10          2          0

          —

          —

78.

Alexander Will.

3       0       0 (q.e.)

8            0          0

          —

          —

79.

Godknape Joh.

          —

          —

          —

5          0           0

80.

Blaking Osbert                       (H)

          —

          —

14           0         0[xiii]

          —

81.

Sort Matilda

          —

          —

          —

9          0          20

82.

Harding Humfrey

          —

          —

          —

1          2           0

83.

Matilda, Barth. son of

3       0       0 (q.e.)

4            0          0

          —

          —

84.

Ratte Juliana                          (H)

          —

          —

3             0          0

          —

85.

Godwyne and Goda

6       0       0 (h.e.)

3            0          0

          —

          —

86.

Bolle Roger

          —

          —

          —

1           2          0

87.

Heyward, Godwyne le

6       0       0 (h.e.)

2            0          0

          —

          —

 

 

 

 

 

 

[Here are entered the names of four holders of cottages.[xiv]

 

 

 

 

 

 

88.

Hendegord, Rog. and Will. de (H)

          —

          —

10           0         0

          —

89.

Suthgate, Rog. de                   (H)

          —

          —

10           0         0

          —

90.

Marue Richard

          —

          —

          —

1           0          0

91.

Hare Edric

          —

          —

          —

1           0          0

92.

Smith, Godwyne the

          —

          —

          —

6           0          0

93.

Steward, Rog. the                 (H)

          —

          —

10           0         0

          —

94.

Seward Joh. and Osbert

          —

          —

          —

5           0          0

95.

Herbert Robert

          —

          —

          —

7           0          0

96.

Hemesby, Amable de

          —

          —

          —

0           3          0

97.

Hubert Humfrey

12       0       0 (h.e.)

2           0           0

          —

          —

98.

Dekene, Joh. le

          —

          —

          —

16         0          0

99.

Haryngby, Will. de[xv]

          —

          —

          —

8           0          0

100.

Prior of Norwich

          —

          —

          —

1           0          0

101.

Blakeman Roger

          —

          —

          —

0           3          0

102.

Chaplain, Godfrey the

          —

          —

          —

4           0          0

103.

Tucke Wymarcha

          —

          —

          —

6           0           0

104.

Cruchestoft —

          —

          —

          —

3           2           0

105.

Dulle Matilda

1        2       0 (⅛ e.)

          —

          —

          —

106.

Stocklondgore —

          —

          —

          —

2           0           0

107.

Hil Joh. and Keneman Joh.

          —

          —

          —

1           2           0

 

(Total =  830      2        0)

266        1         20

141         0         0

235        1          0

188       0          20

 

Tenement form of Simon de Len and previously of villenage.

 

Tenant

       A.    S.    P.

Mogge Brian

          8        0        0

Koc Robert

          3        0        0

Hayleston Will.

          4        1        0

Yware Robert

          4        0        0

Edmund Matilda

          1        1        0

 

 

                             Villenage

          286    3        20

 

Free Tenants.[xvi]

          Syk, Thos. de                            2        2        0

          Yware Will. & Richard               3        2        0

 

                                                                                                £       s.       d.

Sum of Rent of Martham                                                           19      16      7¾

Sum of Aid                                                                               3        14      7¾

Sum of Average[xvii] of (de) Villenage and Socage[xviii]                      1        0        0¾

Sum of Working days in autumn (xvijxx xvj)                                          356 days

Sum of Boons (xijxx j et di)                                                                           241½ days

Sum of Mondays                                                                                           20

Sum of Hoeing corn (xjxx ij di)                                                             222½ days

Sum for Ditching                                                                                1        10½

Sum for Carting Manure                                                            1        2        3

Sum for making Malt and Threshing of the whole Vill[xix]                        1        18      0¾

Sum of Hens (vxx et iij)                                                                                 103

Sum of Lands (DC vxx et iij)[xx]                                                              823 acres

Sum of Harrowing of Socage                                                               27 days

 

 

TURBARIES[xxi] IN SUTHFEN AND THEIR RENTS

 

                                                                                                                   Rent

Heirs of Elsy and Nich. Longe                                                    1 acre          1d.

Hubert Arnald & Adam Trotting                                                         1½ acres       1½d.

Nicholas Berte & Will. Herbert                                                 ½ acre          ½d.

Will. Godrich, Will. Tusard                  }

Roger Produm, John Keymund     }                                               3 acres        3d.

Roger Bolle & Thos. Lom                                                            1 acre          1d.

Richard Galle                                                                            ½ acre          ½d.

Rob. son of Roger                                                                      ½ acre          ½d.

Nicholas Scorch                                                                        ½ acre          ½d.

Heirs of Roger Gode                                                                 1 acre          1d.

Ralph Produm                                                                            1½ acres       1½d.

Joh. Gemere with his fellows                                                     1 acre          1d.

Thos. Stug & his fellows                                                            ½ acre          ½d.

Rob. Dekene                                                                             1 acre          1d.

Alexander Hervy                                                                       1 acre          1d.

Rob. & Rich. Orger                                                                    1 acre          1d.

Nicholas & Roger Bernard                                                                   1 acre          1d.

Heirs of Elsy & Nicholas Longe                                                  1 acre          1d.

Heirs of Adam Gele                                                                            ½ acre          ½d.

Osbert Maybel                                                                         ½ acre          ½d.

Roger Walter & Will. Leuene                                                     ½ acre          ½d.

Joh. & Thos. —                                                                          1 acre          1d.

Ric. & Nicholas Galle                                                                  ½ acre          ½d.

Joh. de Fleg & his brothers                                                                1 acre          1d.

Heirs of Elsy Long & Rog. de Suthgate                                                1 acre          1d.

Rog. Anant                                                                                1 acre          1d.

Heirs of Alice Kine                                                                             1½ acres       1½d.

Heirs of Elsy Hendegord & of John Tvynlyng                              1½ acres       1½d.

Heirs of Unbeyn                                                                       1 acre          1d.

Heirs of Stephen Byl                                                                1 acre          1d.

Geoffrey Alexander & his brothers                                           3 roods        1¼d.

Heirs of Curtman                                                                      ½ acre          ½d.

Rob. Orger & heirs of Joh. Kint [sic]                                         3 acres        3d.

John Gemere & his fellows                                                                   4 acres        4d.

Heirs of Elsy Longe & Nich. Longe                                             1 meadow     6d.

Henry Harald                                                                                      1 abuttal for          1d.

John Gemere                                                                            1 abuttal for          1d.

Roger Starlyng                                                                         1 abuttal for          1d.

Roger Aveline                                                                           1 abuttal for          2d.

Heirs of Stug                                                                                     1 abuttal for          1d.

 

[i] (H) signifies the 27 socmen who do services like Hil.

[ii] (f.e.) signifies “full eruing,” (h.e.) “half eruing,” (q.e.) “quarter eruing.”

[iii] Two holdings, 15 acres and 1 acre.

[iv] Two holdings, 3 acres 2 roods, and 1 acre.

[v] Land of the mill.

[vi] These four (Nos. 27-30), instead of being marked as portions of eruings, are stated to owe services as for “tantum terre servitutis” (so much bond land). See No. 54.

[vii] Two villenage holdings, 6 acres and 3 acres; four socage holdings, 8 acres, 5½ acres, 5½ acres and 1 acre.

[viii] Services for “bond land” as Nos. 27-30.

[ix] Three holdings, 1 acre, 1 acre and ½ acre.

[x] Two holdings, 11 acres and 1 acre.

[xi] Two holdings, 1½ acres and 1½ acres.

[xii] Two holdings, 1 acre and 1½ acres.

[xiii] This is stated in the MS. to be 12 acres. But the details given amount correctly to 14 acres.

[xiv] These may include the three Domesday bordars.

[xv] Holds by homage, 2s. rent, no services.

[xvi] These Freeholders are evidently of the same class as the other tenants.  The first must be of the family of No.13, and the others probably connected with Rob. Yware, of Len’s Tenement.

[xvii] Carrying on a pack-horse, but here including cartage.

[xviii] Socage here means only the 27 Socmen.  The villeins had to do six cartings or pay 9d.  For 22¼ eruings this makes 16s. 8¼d.  The “Hil” men were to do one carrying or pay 1½d., which makes 3s. 4½d.; on the whole £1 0s. 0¾d. as stated.  In the last item “Socage” again means only the 27 at ½ day each.

[xix] The composition demanded of the Villeins for malting 3½ seams of barley was 6d., for 12 days with the flail 12d., amounting to £1 13s. 4½d.  A “Hil” man had only to pay 1¾d., making (for 27) 3s. 11¼d.  This produces £1 17s. 3¾d. not quite the exact sum stated, but evidently showing who were the contributors.  When we find their service ascribed to the “whole vill,” especially in connection with the “Average” and “Harrowing,” can we doubt that the language of this Summary refers back to a time when the “whole vill” consisted of 36 Freemen and 27 Socmen and when the “Socage” contained the 27 Socmen and no others?

[xx] By the Long Hundred, D = 600, C = 120.  The total amount of Customary Lands as given in the original MS. is 830 acres 2 roods when manifest errors are corrected.

[xxi] For cutting turf for fuel.

  • White Instagram Icon

Contact Us

© Copyright 2018 by MLHG.

Proudly created with Wix.com

Tel Pat (Secretary) on 

01493 749775

or email: 

noelrmitchell@gmail.com

Address

We meet at the Methodist Church, Martham